Krugman‘s Three Hit Theory
Herbert E. Krugman was the manager of corporate public opinion research at General Electric. He was both a practitioner and an academic. He received his Ph.D from Columbia University.
According to Krugman‘s low-involvement theory, when people view advertising without thinking about it, they do not fully consider or process the message of the ad. There is no significant attitude change. However, advertising can influence consumer decision-making without conscious awareness. Repeated exposure to advertising can lead to changes in the perceptions of what is important about a brand without the conscious or verbal recognition on the consumer‘s part. This can also be considered in terms of top-of-mind awareness. Repeated exposure to advertising creates top-of-mind awareness. The consumer holds no opinion of the brand until he or she recognizes it in the store and decides to buy it. only after trial is an attitude formed.
According to Krugman , "low-involvement theory seemed to challenge the rule of reason and to confirm the idiocy of the so-called ‘boob tube‘ and perhaps even advertising".
No doubt Krugman‘s concept went against the conventional wisdom of the day. It was believed that consumers sought out information that concerned them, and screened out messages that were not relevant. Krugman suggested that the message was neither screened out nor actively processed, but shifted to long-term memory where an unconscious brand image was formed
According to Krugman, there are special qualities of one, two and three exposures. He stops at three because there is no such thing as a fourth exposure psychologically; rather fours, fives, etc., are repeats of the third exposure effect.
"Exposure No. 1 is...a "What is it?" type of... response. Anything new or novel no matter how uninteresting on second exposure has to elicit some response the first time...if only to discard the object as of no further interest...
The second exposure...response...is "What of it?"...whether or not the message has personal relevance...
"By the third exposure the viewer knows he‘s been through his "What is it‘s?" and "What of it‘s?," and the third, then, becomes the true reminder . . . The importance of this view . . . is that it positions advertising as powerful only when the viewer...is interested in the [product message]...Secondly, it positions the viewer as...reacting to the commercial--very quickly...when the proper time comes round."
Many in the media world interpreted what Krugman wrote as three media exposures. What Krugman calls "frequency" is not what media planners would call "frequency". Krugman doesn‘t discuss media frequency at all.
Krugman‘s three exposures theory is all about psychological exposures.
- ↑ 江民繁.理论假设的“饱和点”是三次——广告频次及广告强度之四